The ELGAN Research Study

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Publications of The ELGAN Study

1. Descriptions of the ELGAN Study
2. What Was Found and Reported

3. Reviews

1.  Descriptions of the ELGAN Study

1. O'Shea TM, Allred EN, Dammann O, Hirtz D, Kuban KCK, Paneth N, Leviton A, for the ELGAN study Investigators. The ELGAN Study of Brain and Related Disorders in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns. Early Human Devel 2009;85:719-25.   NIHMS [143272]

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2.  What Was Found and Reported (In Chronological Order)

2005

2. Kuban KC, O'Shea M, Allred E, Leviton A, Gilmore H, DuPlessis A, Krishnamoorthy K, Hahn C, Soul J, O'Connor SE, Miller K, Church PT, Keller C, Bream R, Adair R, Miller A, Romano E, Bassan H, Kerkering K, Engelke S, Marshall D, Milowic K, Wereszczak J, Hubbard C, Washburn L, Dillard R, Heller C, Burdo-Hartman W, Fagerman L, Sutton D, Karna P, Olomu N, Caldarelli L, Oca M, Lohr K, Scheiner A. Video and CD-ROM as a training tool for performing neurologic examinations of 1-year-old children in a multicenter epidemiologic study. J. Child Neurol 2005;20:829-31. 

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2006

3. Kuban JD, Allred EN, Leviton A. Thymus involution and cerebral white matter damage in extremely low gestational age neonates. Biol Neonate 2006;90:252-7.  

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2007

4. Kuban K, Adler I, Allred EN , Batton D, Bezinque S, Betz BW, Cavenagh E, Durfee S, Ecklund K, Feinstein K, Fordham LA, Hampf F, Junewick J, Lorenzo R, McCauley R,  Miller C, Seibert J, Specter B, Wellman J, Westra S, Leviton A for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Observer variability assessing US scans of the preterm brain: The ELGAN Study. Pediatric Radiology 2007;37:1201-8.

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5. Hecht JL, Kliman HJ, Allred EN, Pflueger SM, Chang CH, Doss BJ, Roberts D, Livasy CA, Bhan I, Zambrano E, Ross DW, Senagore P, Husain AN, Leviton A for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Reference weights for placentas delivered before the 28th week of gestation. Placenta 2007;28:987-90.

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6. Laughon M, Bose C, Allred E, O'Shea TM, Van Marter LJ, Bednarek F, Leviton A; ELGAN Study Investigators. Factors associated with treatment for hypotension in extremely low gestational age newborns during the first postnatal week. Pediatrics 2007;119:273-80.

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7. Cohen J, Van Marter LJ, Sun Y, Allred E, Leviton A, Kohane IS. Perturbation of gene expression of the chromatin remodeling pathway in premature newborns at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Genome Biol 2007;8:R210.

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2008

8. O′Shea TM, Kuban KCK, Allred EN, Paneth N, Pagano M, Dammann O, Bostic L, Brooklier K, Butler S, Goldstein DJ,  Hounshell G, Keller C, McQuiston S, Miller A, Pasternak S, Plesha-Troyke S, Price J, Romano E, Solomon KM, Jacobson A, Westra S, and Leviton A for the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns Study Investigators. Neonatal Cranial Ultrasound Lesions and Developmental Delays at 2 Years of Age Among Extremely Low Gestational Age Children. Pediatrics 2008;122:e662-e669.

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9. Kuban KCK, Allred EN, O'Shea M, Paneth N, Pagano M, Leviton A for the ELGAN Study Cerebral Palsy-Algorithm Group. An algorithm for identifying and classifying cerebral palsy in young children. J Pediatr 2008;153:466-472.

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10. Onderdonk AB, Delaney ML, Dubois AM, Allred EN, Leviton A, for The ELGAN Study Investigators.  Detection of Bacteria in Placental Tissues Obtained from Extremely Low Gestational Age Neonates (ELGAN).  Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;198:110.e1-7.

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11. Onderdonk AB, Hecht JL, McElrath TF, Delaney ML, Allred EN, Leviton A, for The ELGAN Study Investigators.  Colonization of second trimester placenta parenchyma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;199:52.e1-52.e10.

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12. Hecht JL, Onderdonk A, Delaney M, Allred EN, Kliman HJ, Zambrano E, Pflueger SM, Livasy CA, Bhan I, Leviton A for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Characterization of chorioamnionitis in second trimester C-section placentas and correlation with microorganism recovery from subamniotic tissues. Pediatr Dev Pathol 2008;11:15-22. 

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13. Hecht JL, Allred E, Kliman HJ, Zambrano E, Doss BJ, Husain A, Pflueger SM, Chang CH, Livasy CA, Roberts D, Bhan I, Ross DW, Senagore PK, Leviton A. Histologic characteristics of singleton placentas delivered before the 28th week of gestation. Pathology 2008;40:372-6.

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14. McElrath TF, Hecht J, Dammann O, Boggess K, Onderdonk A Markenson G, Harper M, Delpapa E, Allred EN, Leviton A, for The ELGAN Study Investigators.  Pregnancy disorders that lead to delivery before the 28th week of gestation: and epidemiologic approach to classification. Am J Epidemiol 2008;168:980-9.

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2009

15. Kuban KCK, O'Shea TM, Allred EN, Tager-Flusberg H, Goldstein DJ, Leviton A, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Positive screening on the Modified-Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns. J Pediatr 2009;154:535-540.e1.

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16. Bose C, Van Marter LJ, Laughon M, O'Shea TM, Allred EN, Karna P, Ehrenkranz RA, Boggess K, Leviton A, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Fetal Growth Restriction and Chronic Lung Disease among infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Pediatrics 2009;124;e450-e458.

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17. Kuban KCK, Allred EN, O'Shea TM, Paneth N, Westra S, Miller C, Rosman NP, Leviton A, for ELGAN Study investigators.  Developmental correlates of head circumference at birth and at two years in a cohort of extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs). J Pediatr 2009;155:344-9.e1-3 

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18. Laughon M, O'Shea TM, Allred EN, Bose C, Kuban K, Van Marter LJ, Ehrenkranz RA, Leviton A, for the ELGAN Study Investigators.  Chronic lung disease and developmental delay at two years of age in children born before 28 weeks gestation. Pediatrics 2009;124:637-48.

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19. Dammann O, Shah B, Naples M, Bednarek F, Zupancic J, Allred EN, Leviton A, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Interinstitutional Variation in Prediction of Death by SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II Among Extremely Preterm Infants. Pediatrics 2009;124:e1001-6.

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20. Martin CR, Brown YF, Ehrenkranz RA, O'Shea TM, Allred EN, Belfort MB, McCormick MC, Leviton A, and the ELGAN Study Investigators. Nutritional practices and growth velocity in the first month of life in extremely premature infants. Pediatrics 2009;124:649-57.

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21. Laughon M, Allred EN, Bose C, O'Shea TM, Van Marter LJ, Ehrenkranz RA, Leviton A for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Patterns of respiratory disease during the first two postnatal weeks in extremely premature infants. Pediatrics 2009;123:1124 -1131.

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22. Kuban KCK, Allred EN, O'Shea TM, Paneth N, Pagano M, Dammann O, Leviton A, du Plessis A, Westra SJ, Bassan H, Krishnamoorthy K, Junewick J, Olomu N, Romano E, Seibert J, Engelke S, Karna P, Batton D, O'Connor SE, Keller C; ELGAN Study Investigators. Cranial ultrasound lesions in the NICU predict cerebral palsy at age 2 years in children who were born at extremely low gestational age. J Child Neurol 2009;24:63-72. 

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23. McElrath TF, Allred EN, Boggess KA, Kuban K, O'Shea TM, Paneth N, Leviton A for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Maternal Antenatal Complications and the Risk of Neonatal Cerebral White Matter Damage and Later Cerebral Palsy in Children Born at an Extremely Low Gestational Age. Am J Epidemiol 2009;170:819-828.

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24. Olomu IN, Hecht JL, Onderdonk AO, Allred EN, Leviton A, for the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn (ELGAN) Study Investigators. Perinatal correlates of Ureaplasma urealyticum in placenta parenchyma of singleton pregnancies that end before 28 weeks of gestation. Pediatrics 2009;123:1329-136.

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2010

25. Dammann O, Naples M, Bednarek F, Shah B, Kuban KC, O'Shea TM, Paneth N, Allred EN, Leviton A, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II and the risk of structural and functional brain disorders in extremely low gestational age newborns. The ELGAN study. Neonatology 2010;97:71-82.

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26. Leviton A, Allred EN, Kuban KC, Hecht JL, Onderdonk AB, O'Shea TM, Paneth N for the ELGAN study investigators. Microbiologic and histologic characteristics of the extremely preterm infant's placenta predict white matter damage and later cerebral palsy. The ELGAN Study. Pediatr Res 2010;67:95-101.

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27. Leviton A, Allred EN, Kuban KCK, Dammann O, O'Shea TM, Hirtz D, Schreiber MD, Paneth N; ELGAN study investigators. Early blood gas abnormalities and the preterm brain. Am J Epidemiol 2010;172:907-916.

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28. Leviton A, Dammann O, Engelke S, Allred E, Kuban KC, O'Shea TM, Paneth N;  ELGAN study investigators. The clustering of disorders in infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Acta Paediatr 2010;99:1795-800.

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29. Westra S, Adler I, Batton D, Betz B, Bezinque S, Durfee S, Ecklund K, Feinstein K, Fordham L, Junewick J, Lorenzo R, McCauley R, Miller C, Seibert J, Kuban K, Allred E, Leviton A. Reader variability in the use of diagnostic terms to describe white matter lesions seen on cranial scans of severely premature infants. The ELGAN Study. J Clin Ultrasound 2010;38:409-19.

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30. Leviton A, Kuban K, Allred EN, Hecht JL, Onderdonk A, O'Shea TM, McElrath T, Paneth N, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Antenatal antecedents of a small head circumference at age 24-months post-term equivalent in a sample of infants born before the 28th post-menstrual week. Early Hum Devel 2010;86:515-521

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31. McElrath TF, Allred EN, Kuban K, Hecht JL, Onderdonk A, O' Shea TM, Paneth N, Leviton A; ELGAN Study Investigators. Factors associated with small head circumference at birth among infants born before the 28th week. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010;203:138.e1-e8

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32. Martin CR, Dammann O, Allred EN, Patel S, O'Shea TM, Kuban KC, Leviton A, and the ELGAN Study Investigators. Neurodevelopment of extremely preterm infants who had necrotizing enterocolitis with or without late bacteremia. J Pediatr 2010;157:751-756.

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2011

33. Krishnamoorthy KS, Kuban KCK, O'Shea TM, Westra S, Allred EN, Leviton A, for the ELGAN Study Co-investigators. Early cranial ultrasound lesions predict microcephaly at age 2 in preterm infants. J Child Neurol 2011;26:188-194.

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34. Hauspurg AK, Allred EN, Vanderveen DK, Chen M, Bednarek FJ, Cole C, Ehrenkranz RA, Leviton A, Dammann O. Blood Gases and Retinopathy of Prematurity. The ELGAN Study. Neonatology 2011;99:104–111.

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35. Hecht JL, Fichorova RN, Tang VF, Allred EN, McElrath TF, Leviton A; ELGAN Study Investigators. Relationship between neonatal blood protein concentrations and placenta histologic characteristics in extremely low GA newborns. Pediatr Res 2011;69:68-73.

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36. Leviton A, Fichorova R, Yamamoto Y, Allred EN, Dammann O, Hecht J, Kuban K, McElrath T, O'Shea TM, Paneth N. Inflammation-related proteins in the blood of extremely low gestational age newborns. The contribution of inflammation to the appearance of developmental regulation. Cytokine 2011;53:66-73.

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37. Fichorova RN, Onderdonk AB, Yamamoto H, Delaney ML, DuBois AM, Allred EN, Leviton A, for the Extremely Low Gestation Age Newborns (ELGAN) Study Investigators. Maternal Microbe-Specific Modulation of Inflammatory Response in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns. mBIO 2011;2:e00280-10.

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38. Bose B, Laughon M, Allred EN, Van Marter LJ, O'Shea TM, Ehrenkranz RA, Fichorova R, Leviton A; ELGAN Study Investigators. Blood protein concentrations in the first two postnatal weeks that predict bronchopulmonary dysplasia among infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Pediatr Res 2011;69:347-353.

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39. McElrath TF, Fichorova RN, Allred EN, Hecht JL, Ismail MA, Yuan H, Leviton A; ELGAN Study Investigators. Blood protein profiles of infants born before 28 weeks differ by pregnancy complication. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;204:418.e1-418.e12. 

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40. Leviton A, Hecht J Allred EN, Yamamoto Y, Fichorova RN, Dammann O, Persistence after birth of systemic inclammation associated with umbilical cord inflammation. J Reprod Immunol 2011;90:235–243.

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41. Leviton A, Kuban K, O'Shea TM, Paneth N, Fichorova R, Allred EN, Dammann O. The relationship between early concentrations of 25 blood proteins and cerebral white matter injury in preterm newborns. The ELGAN Study. J Pediatr 2011;158:897-903.e1-5,

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42. Leviton A, Kuban KC, Allred EN, Fichorova RN, O'Shea TM, Paneth N, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Early postnatal blood concentrations of inflammation-related proteins and microcephaly two years later in infants born before the 28th post-menstrual week. Early Human Development 2011;87:325–330.

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43. Laughon M, Bose C, Allred EN, O'Shea TM, Ehrenkranz R, Van Marter LJ, Leviton A, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Patterns of blood protein concentrations of ELGANs classified by three patterns of respiratory disease in the first two postnatal weeks. Pediatr Res 2011;70:292-296

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44. Leviton A, Allred EN, Kuban KCK, Dammann O, Fichorova RN, O'Shea TM, Paneth N, for the ELGAN Study Co-Investigators. Blood protein concentrations in the first two postnatal weeks associated with early postnatal blood gas derangements among infants born before the 28th week of gestation. The ELGAN Study. Cytokine 2011;56: 392-398.

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45. Van Marter LJ, Kuban KC, Allred E, Bose C, Dammann O, O'Shea M, Laughon M, Ehrenkranz RA, Schreiber MD, Karna P, Leviton A; ELGAN Study Investigators. Does Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Contribute to the Occurrence of Cerebral Palsy among Infants Born before 28 weeks of Gestation? Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2011;96:F20–F29.

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46. Logan JW, O'Shea TM, Allred EN, Laughon MM, Bose CL, Dammann O, Batton DG Engelke SC, and Leviton A; ELGAN Study Investigators. Early Postnatal Hypotension and Developmental Delay at 24 Months of Age among Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns.  Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2011;96 F321-F328

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47. Luyster RJ, Kuban KCK, O'Shea TM, Paneth N, Allred EN, Leviton A, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) in extremely low gestational age newborns: Individual items associated with cognitive, motor, vision, and hearing limitations. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2011;25:366-376.

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48. Logan JW, O'Shea TM, Allred EN, Laughon MM, Bose CL, Dammann O, Batton DG, Kuban KC, Paneth N, Leviton A; ELGAN Study Investigators. Early postnatal hypotension is not associated with indicators of white matter damage or cerebral palsy in extremely low gestational age newborns J Perinatol 2011;31:524-34.                                 

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49. Chen ML, Allred EN, Hecht JL, Onderdonk A, Vanderveen D, Wallace DK, Leviton A, Dammann O; for the ELGAN Study. Placenta Microbiology and Histology, and The Risk for Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011;52:7052-7058.

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50. Laughon M, Bose B, Allred EN, O'Shea TM, Ehrenkranz RA, Van Marter LJ, Leviton A, for the ELGAN Study Investigators.  Antecedents of chronic lung disease following three patterns of early respiratory disease in preterm infants. Archives of Disease in Childhood Fetal Neonatal Ed 2011;96 F114-F120.

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51. Patel S, Dammann O, Martin CR, Allred EN, Leviton A; ELGAN study investigators. Presumed and definite bacteremia in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs). Acta Paediatr 2011;100:36-41

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52. Tolsma KW, Allred EN, Chen ML, Duker J, Leviton A, Dammann O. Neonatal Bacteremia and Retinopathy of Prematurity: The ELGAN Study. Arch Ophthalmology 2011;129:1555-63.

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2012

53. Leviton A, Allred EN, Yamamoto H, Fichorova RN, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Relationships among the concentrations of 25 inflammation-associated proteins during the first postnatal weeks in the blood of infants born before the 28th week of gestation. Cytokine 2012;57:182-90.

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54. O′Shea TM, Allred EN, Kuban KCK, Hirtz D, Spector B, Durfee S, Paneth N, Leviton A for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Developmental Outcomes at 24 months of age in Extremely Preterm Infants. J Child Neurol 2012;27 22-29. 

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55. O'Shea TM, Allred EN, Kuban KCK, Dammann O, Paneth N, Fichorova RN, Hirtz D, Leviton A, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Elevated concentrations of inflammation-related proteins in postnatal blood predict severe developmental delay at two years in extremely premature infants. J Pediatr 2012;160:395-401.e4.

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56. Helderman J, O'Shea TM, Kuban KCK, Allred EN, Hecht J, Dammann  O, Paneth N, McElrath TF, Onderdonk AB, Leviton A. Antenatal antecedents of cognitive impairment at 24 months among extremely low gestational age newborns. Pediatrics 2012;129:3 494-502

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57. Trivedi S, Joachim M, McElrath T, Kliman HJ, Allred EN, Fichorova RN, Onderdonk A, Heitor F, Chaychi L, Leviton A, Majzoub JA. Fetal-Placental Inflammation, but not Adrenal Activation, is Associated with Extreme Preterm Delivery. AJOG 2012; 206(3): 236.e1-8.

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58. Leviton A, O'Shea TM, Bednarek FJ, Allred EN, Fichorova RN, Dammann O; for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Systemic responses of preterm newborns with presumed or documented bacteraemia. Acta Paediatr 2012;101: 355-359.

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59. Streimish IG, Ehrenkranz RA, Allred EN, O'Shea TM, Kuban KCK, Paneth N, Leviton A, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Birthweight-SGA and Fetal-SGA: Impact on Neurodevelopment. Early Human Development 2012;88:765–771. NIHMS: 488772

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60. Tyler CP, Paneth N, Allred EN, Hirtz D, Kuban KCK, McElrath T, O'Shea TM, Miller C, Leviton A, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Brain damage in preterm newborns and maternal medication: the ELGAN Study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2012;207(3):192.e1-9.

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2013

61. Bose CL, Laughon MM, Allred EN, Michael O'Shea T, Van Marter LJ, Ehrenkranz RA, Fichorova RN, Leviton A; for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Systemic inflammation associated with mechanical ventilation among extremely preterm infants. Cytokine 2013;61(1):315-322.

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62. Martin CR, Bellomy M, Allred EN, Fichorova RN, Leviton A, on behalf of the  ELGAN Study Investigators. Systemic Inflammation Associated with Severe Intestinal Injury in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns. Fetal Pediatr Path 2012 Sep 24 [Epub ahead of print]

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63. Leviton A, Allred EN, Dammann O, Engelke S, Fichorova RN, Hirtz D, Kuban K, Ment L, O'Shea TM, Paneth N, Shah B, Schreiber MS, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Systemic inflammation, intraventricular hemorrhage, and white matter injury. J Child Neurol 2012 Oct 30 [Epub ahead of print]

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64. Leviton A, Fichorova TN, O'Shea TM, Kuban K, Paneth P, Dammann O, Allred EN, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Two-hit model of brain damage in the very preterm newborn: small for gestational age and postnatal systemic inflammation. Pediatric Research 2013;73(3):362-70. NIHMS447523

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65. O'Shea TM, Shah B, Allred EN, Fichorova RN, Kuban KCK, Dammann O, Leviton A, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Inflammation-initiating illnesses, inflammation-related proteins, and cognitive impairment in extremely preterm infants. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 2013;29(3):104-12

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66. Lee JW, McElrath T, Chen M, Wallace DK, Allred EN, Leviton A, Dammann O. Pregnancy Disorders Appear to Modify the Risk for Retinopathy of Prematurity Associated With Neonatal Hyperoxemia and Bacteremia. J Maternal-Fetal Neonatal Medicine 2013; 26(8):811-8.  

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67. VanderVeen DK, Martin CR, Mehendale R, Allred EN, Dammann O, Leviton A, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Early nutrition and weight gain in preterm newborns and the risk of retinopathy of prematurity. PLoS One 2013; 8(5):E64325.

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68. Logan JW, Westra SJ, Allred EN, O'Shea TM, Kuban KCK, Paneth N, Leviton A For The ELGAN Study Investigators. Antecedents of perinatal cerebral white matter damage with and without intraventricular hemorrhage in very preterm newborns. Pediatr Neurol 2013; 49(2): 88-96.

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69. McElrath T, Allred EN, Van Marter LJ, Fichorova RN, Leviton A, for The Elgan Study Investigators. Perinatal systemic inflammatory responses of growth-restricted preterm newborns. Acta Paed 2013; 102(10):e439-42.

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70. Adén U, Lin A, Choi M, Carlo W, Liu Z, Leviton A, Murray JC, Hallman M, Hirtz D, Lifton RP, Zhang H, Ment LR, for The Gene Targets For IVH Study Group. Candidate Gene Analysis: Severe Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Inborn Preterm Neonates. J Pediatr 2013; 163(5):1503-6.e1.

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71. van der Burg JW, Allred EN, McElrath TF, Fichorova RN, Kuban KCK, O'Shea TM, Dammann O, Leviton A. Is maternal obesity associated with sustained inflammation in extremely low gestational age newborns? Early Human Devel 2013; 89(12):949-55.

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72. Boyd LAC, Msall ME, O'Shea TM, Allred EN, Hounshell G, Leviton A. Social-emotional delays at 2 years in extremely low gestational age survivors: correlates of impaired orientation/engagement and emotional regulation early human development. Early Hum Devel  213; 89(12):925-30.

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73.  Bartholomew J, Martin CR, Allred EA, Chen ML, Ehrenkranz RA, Dammann O, Leviton A.  Risk Factors and Correlates of Neonatal Growth Velocity in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns. The ELGAN Study.  Neonatology 2013; 104:298-304.

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2014

74. Wei C, Lu Q, Khoo SK, Lenski M, Fichorova RN, Leviton A, Paneth N. Comparison of frozen and unfrozen blood spots for gene expression studies. J Pediatr 2014;164(1):189-191.E1.

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75. Kuban KC, O'Shea TM, Allred EN, Paneth N, Hirtz D, Fichorova RN, Leviton A; for the ELGAN Study Investigators. Systemic Inflammation and Cerebral Palsy Risk in Extremely Preterm Infants. J Child Neurol 2014;29(12):1692-8.

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76. O'Shea TM, Joseph RM, Kuban KC, Allred EN, Ware J, Coster T, Fichorova RN, Dammann O, Leviton A. Elevated blood levels of inflammation-related proteins are associated with an attention problem at age 24 months in extremely preterm infants. Pediatr Res. 2014 June;75(6):781-7.

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77.  Korzeniewski S J, Soto-Rivera CL, Fichorova RN, Allred EN, Kuban KCK, O’Shea TM, Paneth N, Agus M, Dammann O, Leviton A, for the ELGAN study investigators. Are preterm newborns who have relative hyperthyrotropinemia at increased risk of brain damage? J Ped Endocrinol Metab 2014 Jun 4 [Epub ahead of print]. 

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78. Allred EN, Capone A Jr., Fraioli A, Dammann O, Droste P,  Duker J, Gise R, Kuban K, Leviton A, O’Shea TM, Paneth N, Petersen R, Trese M, Stoessel K, Vanderveen D, Wallace DK, Weaver G. Retinopathy of prematurity and brain damage in the very preterm newborn. J AAPOS 2014 Jun;18(3):241-7. 

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79.  Phadke A, Msall ME, Droste P, Allred EN, O'Shea TM, Kuban K, Dammann O, Leviton A. Impaired visual fixation at age 2 years in children born before the 28th week of gestation. Antecedents and correlates in the multi-center ELGAN Study.  Pediatric Neurology 2014 Jul;51(1):36-42. 

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80.  Logan JW, Allred EN, Fichorova RN, Engelke S, Dammann O, Leviton A. Endogenous erythropoietin varies significantly with Inflammation-related proteins in extremely premature newborns. Cytokine 2014;69(1):22–28. 

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81.  Sriram S, Condie J, Schreiber M, Batton D, Shah B, Bose C, Laughon MM, Van Marter LJ, Allred EN, Leviton A. Early Blood Gas Predictors of Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns. International Journal of Pediatrics 2014;2014:210218.

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82.  Soto-Rivera CL, Fichorova RN, Allred EN, Van Marter LJ, Shah B, Martin CR, Agus MSD, Leviton A, for the ELGAN Study Investigators. The relationship between TSH and systemic inflammation in extremely-preterm newborns. Endocrine 2014 Jul 6 [Epub ahead of print]. 

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83. Fichorova RN, Beatty N, Sassi RR, Yamamoto H, Allred EN, Leviton A. Systemic inflammation in the extremely low gestational age newborn following maternal genito-urinary infections. Am J Repro Immunol online 28 August 2014.

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84. Downey LC, O’Shea TM, Allred EN, Kuban KC, McElrath TF, Marshall D, Ware J, Hecht JL, Onderdonk A, Leviton A. Antenatal and early postnatal antecedents of parent-reported attention problems at 2 years of age. The Journal of Pediatrics 2014 Sep 17 [Epub ahead of print].

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85. Lee JW, VanderVeen D, Allred EN, Leviton A, Dammann O. Pre-threshold retinopathy in premature infants with intra-uterine growth restriction. Acta Paediatrica 2014 Sep 4. [Epub ahead of print]. 

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86.  Kuban KC, O'Shea MT, Allred EN, Fichorova RN, Heeren T, Paneth N, Hirtz D, Dammann O, Leviton A; ELGAN Study Investigators.  The Breadth and Type of Systemic Inflammation and the Risk of Adverse Neurological Outcomes in Extremely Low Gestation Newborns. Pediatr Neurol 2014 29:1692-1698.

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87.  Holm M, Msall ME, Skranes J, Dammann O, Allred E, Leviton A.  Antecedents and correlates of visual field deficits in children born extremely preterm.  Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2014 Oct 12 [Epub ahead of print].

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3.  Reviews

87. Leviton A, Dammann O, O'Shea TM, Paneth N. Adult stroke and perinatal brain damage: like grandparent, like grandchild? Neuropediatrics 2002;33:281-7.

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88. Hagberg H, Dammann O, Mallard C, Leviton A. Preconditioning and the developing brain. Semin Perinatol 2004;28:389-95.

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89. Leviton A, Blair E, Dammann O, Allred E.  The wealth of information conveyed by gestational age. J Pediatr 2005;146:123-7.

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90. Leviton A, Dammann O, Durum SK. The adaptive immune response in neonatal cerebral white matter damage. Ann Neurol 2005;58:821-8.

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91. O'Shea TM. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Cerebral Palsy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2008;51:816-28.

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92. Dammann O, O'Shea TM. Cytokines and brain damage. Clin Perinatol 2008;35:643-63.

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93. Bueter W, Dammann O, Leviton A. Endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and perinatal brain damage. Pediatr Res 2009;66:487-94.

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94. Adler I, Batton D, Betz B, Bezinque S, Ecklund K, Junewick J, McCauley R, Miller C, Seibert J, Specter B, Westra S, Leviton A.  Mechanisms of injury to white matter adjacent to a large intraventricular hemorrhage in the preterm brain. J Clin Ultrasound 2010;38:254-258.

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95. Wolkenhauer O, Auffray C, Jaster R, Steinhoff G, Dammann O. The Road From Systems Biology To Systems Medicine. Pediatr Res 2013;73(4 Part 2):502-7.

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96. Hellström A, Smith LEH, Dammann O. Retinopathy of Prematurity. The Lancet 2013; 382(9902):1445-57.

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97. O'Shea TM, Downey LC, Kuban KKC. Extreme prematurity and attention deficit: epidemiology and prevention. Front Hum Neurosci 2013;7:578.

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98. Dammann O, Leviton A. Intermittent or Sustained Systemic Inflammation (ISSI) and the Preterm Brain. Pediatr Res 2014; 75(3):376-80.

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99.  Dammann O, Gray P, Gressens P, Wolkenhauer O, Leviton, A.  Systems epidemiology:  What's in a name?"  Online Journal of  Public Health Informatics, accepted December 9, 2014.

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