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Thoracic Surgery

Diseases & Conditions

Esophageal Cancer

Boston Medical Center specializes in the treatment of esophageal cancer, tumors that arise from malignant (abnormal) cells in the neck and chest area. Our Center for Thoracic Oncology provides comprehensive, expert care for patients with cancer of the esophagus and other related diseases. Our mission, like that of BMC, is to provide every patient with exceptional care, without exception. We are here to help minimize your pain, treat you in the most effective way possible and help you start on the path to recovery. Our team of dedicated oncologists, surgeons and nurses are among the best in the country and our treatment approach, facilities and technology are state-of-the-art.

What is Esophageal Cancer?

Esophageal cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the esophagus, which is a flexible tube connecting the throat to the stomach. Generally between 10 and 13 inches long, the esophagus contracts when you swallow to push food down into the stomach. Mucus helps move the process along.

Ninety percent of esophageal cancers are one of two types: squamous cell or adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell refers to cancers that originate in the cells that line the esophagus. Adenocarcinoma begins in the part of the esophagus that joins the stomach.

Diagnostic Procedures

What are Symptoms of Esophageal Cancer?

Some people do not notice any symptoms of esophageal cancer until late in the disease. However, symptoms may include:

  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Hoarseness or a long-lasting cough
  • Regurgitating blood
  • Weight loss with an unknown cause
  • Pain in the throat or back
  • Vomiting

What Causes Esophageal Cancer?

  • The causes of esophageal cancer are not fully understood, but scientists have discovered several likely contributing factors, including:
  • Advancing age. People over age 60 are more likely to develop the disease.
  • Gender. Esophageal cancer is more common in men than women.
  • Tobacco use. Smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes, or using snuff or chewing tobacco, greatly increases risk. For those who both smoke and drink, the risk is highest.
  • Acid reflux. When stomach acids flow back into the esophagus, irritation occurs. Over time, this irritation can lead to problems, including a condition called Barrett's esophagus, where cell changes often lead to cancer.
  • Previous history of head or neck cancers
  • An unhealthy lifestyle, such as being overweight or eating a diet low in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains

How is Esophageal Cancer Diagnosed?

There are a number of ways that physicians may detect esophageal cancer, after doing a medical history and physical examination:

How is Esophageal Cancer Treated?

If you are diagnosed with esophageal cancer, you have options. Your physician will work with you and your family to discuss your unique situation and all possible treatments. Factors that will be taken into consideration in determining your best treatment plan are the size and location of the tumor, the involvement of surrounding tissue, whether it has spread to other body parts and your overall health.

Treatments include:

Center for Thoracic Oncology
Center for Minimally Invasive Esophageal Therapies


Call: 617.638.5600
Fax: 617.638.7382

Boston Medical Center
Center for Thoracic Surgery
Moakley Building
830 Harrison Avenue, 3rd Floor
Boston, MA 02118

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Fax: 617.638.7382

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88 East Newton Street
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Boston, MA 02118
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